Segmentation in mobility management projects
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Dear reader,
SEGMENT is an Intelligent-Energy-Europe funded project which tested consumer market segmentation techniques to persuade people to adopt more energy efficient forms of transport. The results show the great potential of segmentation and the large learning potential within EU-projects.



Setup of the project

SEGMENT aimed to maximise the impact of the campaigns through the use of two segmentation techniques:
  1. Targeting people during so called “life change moments’ e.g. moving home, starting a new job, going to university
  2. Clustering these persons (through detailed surveys) into relatively homogenous groups (in terms of attitude and travel behaviour) and then devising the campaigns to effectively address these target clusters (segments).
SEGMENT had 6 partner cities, each carrying out 3 campaigns – these were the London Borough of-Hounslow (coordinator), Almada (PT), Gdynia (PL), Munich (GE), Sofia (BG) and Utrecht (NL) – plus Athens as observer city.
  • Knowhow-transfer: Utrecht, Munich and London-Hounslow organised intensive site visit learning programmes in which the staff of the other SEGMENT cities as well as guests from EPOMM countries learned about the campaigns in the host cities.
  • Training: Each city organised national training events in which the project, methodology and results were presented, discussed and further disseminated.
  • Standardisation: all cities used the same methodology for segmentation and evaluation, they all applied the MaxEva tool and published their results on both MaxEva and Eltis – a premiere for European projects.
In the SEGMENT project, the University of Aberdeen did the analysis and evaluation, EPOMM was responsible for European dissemination



Life change moments – campaigns

At life change moments, people have to change their mobility patterns, and are therefore more apt to consider other modes of transport. The six SEGMENT cities were quite creative and addressed a variety of such life change situations.

Please click on the city – it links you to the Eltis cases with a in depth description of the case.

New residents (Almada, Munich, Utrecht)
In Munich all new residents get extensive mobility information and recommendations– plus vouchers and try-out tickets for public transport. Munich improved this package based on the segmentation results: Both Almada and Utrecht took up the great example from Munich and introduced a new residents campaign for the first time in their countries. It is crucial, that the city has access to the data of the new residents, which is not possible in every country.

Migrants (Munich)
Munich developed a special package for migrants that apply for a residence permit. Mobility information is integrated into their language course – thus helping them to feel at home and providing very practical examples for their language learning.

New students and pupils (Almada, Gdynia, London , Munich, Sofia, Utrecht)
Almada addressed first year university students when they registered – they set up a mobility information booth providing personalised travel information. The other cities addressed parents and children – either when children started school: with information packages (Almada, London, Utrecht) – or when they changed from primary to secondary school (Munich), or with well known, but in their countries new programmes like “walking bus” or “walk once a week” campaigns (Gdynia, Sofia).

New employees (Gdynia, London, Utrecht)
Gdynia addressed employees focusing on the promotion of cycling. They had a special “side campaign” targeted to so called “car contemplators” – persons considering to buy a car. Utrecht further developed an existing campaign to use the bicycle twice a week – the campaign now provides personal travel advice and promotes the use of e-bikes (which have a very high market share in the Netherlands – see last e-update ). London applied a wide variety of measures: eco-driving, a public transport portal, e-car-pool and cycle chic.

When going to a health centre (Gdynia, London)
For most people, it is an entirely new experience to get mobility advice in a health centre. For the cities, it meant developing new partnerships. Gdynia focused on new parents that are going to health centres with their children: there they were provided with a magazine on mobility and campaign posters promoting walking and cycling. London focused on obese persons or persons with a too sedentary lifestyle: patients were directly addressed by their General Practitioners (their doctors) and were offered bicycle training programmes along with bicycle try-outs.



Segmentation: methodology, limits, benefits

Click to enlage

For each of the campaigns a ‘before’ and ‘after’ survey was undertaken. This consisted of questionnaires collecting data on travel behaviour and attitudes to travel. A cluster analysis led to a grouping into 8 segments, of which 5 were car owning, 3 non-car owning. The segments ranged for example from “Devoted Drivers” (almost impossible to change) via Malcontented Motorist (quite fed up with driving, but without subjective alternative) to “Car Free Choosers” (not owning a car and happy with it). Here the analysis example from London. The segments of course varied in size from target group to target group and from city to city. Cities in this way got a good knowledge about their target group and could thus decide what segments they wanted to address and how to best address them. As a small example: Gdynia decided to address the segment of “Car Contemplators” (persons planning to buy a car) – as they considered it important to convince them to maintain their currently more sustainable travel behaviour.

SEGMENT has proven that these attitudinal segments are common and workable across Europe. The proportions of the segments vary from country to country in relation to the value people put on status, cost, time, environment, social norms etc. Segmentation was a very interesting and useful exercise for all SEGMENT partners, but the generally it was considered to be too much effort to be contained in a campaign, especially if the campaign is relatively small. However, as a result of collecting so much data, SEGMENT has identified a set of calibrated and tested questions (and an online tool to crunch the data) to unearth the relevant proportions in each city (see Golden Questions tool below).



Standard Evaluation

All cities used the same evaluation method, involving control groups for the ‘after’ survey – see the SEGMENT report on evaluation. Each case can also be found on the MaxEva database: go to the menupoint “Benchmark”, and enter SEGMENT as keyword. Press “search” and you can sort all 19 SEGMENT campaigns according to budget, target group size and CO2 reduction.

Evaluation limitations
In some cases, the control groups were not a good comparison for the target group or the sample sizes in the control group were too small. In these cases the data-evaluation was reduced to a more simple before/after method. The effort and costs for the evaluation were often too large relative to the campaign.

MaxEva improvement
As SEGMENT partners reported problems with using MaxEva, EPOMM implemented several improvements:
  • Introduction of a manual
  • More default values (for example for trip length or car occupancy)
  • Cleanup of some (small) mistakes
  • Better navigation, better explanation
We invite you to also use the MaxEva database for your evaluations. Our partner, the Dutch knowledge centre for transport and traffic, has migrated its national project database to MaxEva (see this newsflash).



Project conclusions


  • Addressing persons at “life change moments” is an effective way of segmentation. There are a great number of such “life change” opportunities to effectively apply MM-campaigns. While some might be common in one country, they are still quite unknown in another.
  • Segmentation of a target group into different attitudinal segments has led to creativity, new marketing messages and more focused campaigns. These attitudinal segments are common and workable across Europe
  • Analysis of the SEGMENT data show more change towards sustainable modes in attitudinal segments specifically targeted by the campaign. Messages about the health benefits of active travel, the ‘quality time’ benefits of walking and the ‘image’ benefits of cycling seemed to have the greatest impact.
  • Standardised survey methods, questionnaires and analysis are a great benefit, but they have to have an adequate size and cost in relation to the mobility management project.
  • Once the data of an MM-project have been collected and correctly grouped, the standardised processing of the data on MaxEva makes results quickly available and easily comparable.
  • SEGMENT has developed a standardised way for segmentation in mobility management projects. By help of the “Golden Questions” document, segmentation can now be done with a relatively minor effort. The Golden Questions will be available on the SEGMENT website and on the “tools” part of the EPOMM and Eltis websites.




  Resource overview on SEGMENT website
All SEGMENT cases on Eltis as pdf



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