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Dear reader,
we bring you the third e-update produced together with our cooperation partner, the MAX-project. One part of this project is to investigate behaviour change through MM - how can we model it, how can we measure it, can we predict the effects of MM? The work resulted (among other things) in the following four tools:

MaxSEM - A new standard model of behaviour change

MaxExplorer - A decision support guide that provides guidance on suitable MM measures

MaxSUMO - A standardised evaluation tool

MaxEVA - An interactive database to collect evaluation data of MM projects in European


MaxSEM: Step by step towards behavioural change


MaxSEM (Max SElf-Regulation Model) is MAX's new theoretical standard model of behavioural change, which has been developed and validated via a cross-cultural survey of car-drivers in seven European countries. The new model uses the most important constructs of 'static' psychological models of behavioural change and interlinks those with the temporal dimension of the process of change by incorporating four key 'stages' of behaviour change:


A change of behaviour doesn't happen at once, but takes time and proceeds via several stages. At each stage different thresholds need to be overcome in order to arrive at the last "maintenance" stage - there the goal is to maintain the habitual use of alternatives to motoring. MM measures can be specifically designed to achieve good results at each stage of the behavioural change.

MaxSEM focuses on achieving transitions between the stages - at the first stage this may include addressing the awareness of the problem (from pre-contemplation to contemplation) and in a next step addressing the desire to reach a personal goal (i.e. reduce use of personal cars) as main source of motivation towards a change. Emotional processes and how you evaluate your own behaviour are central parts of the model.

To validate the model, an intricate campaign with over 2000 participants was conducted in Munich, Germany. The participants were allocated to three intervention groups:

  1. One group received a standard campaign package (same for all)
  2. A second group received a campaign package specifically tailored to the individual stages of the respective participants. These were determined by especially designed questionnaires
  3. A control group receiving no campaign package at all (needed to be able to subtract the influence of external effects, like weather or petrol price fluctuations)
The study will be presented by Dr. Michael Carreno on behalf of the MAX-team working on this in session "Success factors in Mobility Management / Cost benefit" on Friday, 15 May at ECOMM 2009.


Need orientation?
Use MaxExplorer, the Decision Support Guide for MM measures!

The MaxExplorer is an interactive internet guide, which assists decision makers and MM practitioners to select suitable MM measures for specific situations (e.g. location, type of activity at location, modal choice and size).

It is designed to be used by newcomers and less experienced users from all around Europe. In contrast to existing guides, it is designed for users with different organisational backgrounds and offers guidance to companies, municipalities, schools, PT operators and public services (e.g. hospitals).

To start MaxExplorer, the users answer a few questions about themselves, the target group (type, size) and the location. Then, a selection of recommendable measures is offered. Additional clicks provide users with further information about each separate measure, its usefulness in different situations and also provide links to existing case studies that can be used as good practice example.

The user is then also pointed to further tools like MaxSUMO that assist with planning, monitoring and evaluating MM measures and projects (see below).

MaxExplorer is currently being programmed and tested and will soon be available on and


Do MM measures work?
MaxSUMO: THE Evaluation Tool for MM measures and projects!

For anyone carrying out Mobility Management, it is of primary interest to know and to be able to show that the effort and the costs are justified. Still, many projects are not evaluated at all. One obvious reason is the lack of a common, generally accepted evaluation tool. MaxSUMO is based on previous European projects (e.g. MOST) and on the SUMO-tool that is widely used in Sweden.

MaxSUMO provides standardised guidance during the planning, implementation and evaluation of a MM project. It helps to structure the necessary steps of a project, e.g. setting targets, defining target groups, selecting measures. The unique benefit of MaxSUMO is that the process of behavioural change is divided into smaller steps that can actually be monitored and evaluated successively. Hereby, possible deviations can be corrected at an early stage. So, at the core of MaxSUMO you find several assessment levels:


The assessment levels are co-ordinated in a systematic way, and allow direct monitoring of the effects during the implementation. This is essential for efficient evaluation later on. At all levels you need to decide what to measure, which indicators to use and how to measure these. You can also decide to skip steps - in some projects it is not possible to measure, in others not necessary. You may keep it as simple as you consider adequate.

MAXSumo can be used for single measures, but also for combined measures. In this way, evaluation data can be compiled in a standardised way. As the aim is to disseminate the use of MAXSumo on a European level (and it is already tested in several countries), this will have very positive effects for future work and cost-benefit estimations - see MAXEVA below.

At ECOMM 2009 MaxSUMO will be presented by Pernilla Hyllenius and Annika Nilsson from Trivector (Sweden) in the session "Tools and guidelines from the EU MAX project" and a training session will be arranged by the same persons on May 14.


Want to compare your performance with similar projects?
Use MaxEVA, the interactive database for mobility projects!

MaxEVA is an interactive web database for evaluation data of MM projects. It is based on the type of data which will be generated by using MaxSUMO for evaluation and offers simple tables and boxes to be filled in. Its usage provides guidance regarding the evaluation of Mobility Management interventions.

The idea is that MaxEVA over time will accumulate data from a large number of MM interventions, which will constitute a database with reliable information - you will be able to determine what effects to expect from measures. In short term perspective, MaxEVA can be used as a benchmarking tool where similar projects and their achievements can be compared.

MaxEVA will also help to identify both key performance indicators and pitfalls - which can help decision-makers, prioritise their investments in MM. The database will include a range of different types of MM measures, as defined in the MAX MM definition. It will feature both single measures and plans or programmes including a number of measures, for example:

  • Personalised travel assistance (PTA)
  • Projects like "test traveller"
  • Campaigns like "commute by bike", "bike to win"
  • Schemes for car sharing and car pooling
  • Usage of video or tele-meeting
  • Mobility plans (company, school), including a range of different measures



All MAX tools will be available on the EPOMM-website and on the MAX-website - to be announced by coming e-updates. Previous MAX-e-updates: MM and travel awareness, Evaluation of MM


EPOMM is expanding: Portugal joins, EC supports

Portugal has joined EPOMM, and is represented by IMTT, the Instituto da Mobilidade e dos Transportes Terrestres (Mobility and Land Transport Institute). Find more about the new member here. EPOMM now has eight members.

Starting on 20th May, EPOMM will coordinate the project EPOMM-PLUS, in which organisations from 20 countries will aim for the enhancement of EPOMM and more networking and exchange in MM. EPOMM-Plus is co-funded through STEER, part of the EU's Intelligent Energy Europe Programme. This will certainly help to disseminate the usage of the new tools and comes exactly at the right time. More information will be provided in upcoming e-updates.


lept cedex Austrian Energy Agency IMTT
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